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By O. Kroodsma (Auth.)

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Wickstrom Fig. 2. Three-dimensional microphone polar patterns. (A) Cardioid. (B) Omnidirec­ tional. (C) Figure eight. (D) Shotgun. (E) Supercardioid (see pp. 9-12). ) Fig. 2 (continued) David C. Wickstrom 10 Fig. 2 (continued) Fig. 2 (continued) David C. Wickstrom Fig. 2 (continued) 13 1. Recording Avian Sounds microphone should be tested. If stability and consistency of the system's perfor­ mance are important to a recording project, means of calibrating the system in the field must be obtained.

I o n , ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ~ ' ' y ^ - ^ ^ ^ j * , S " " " ~ • ; GPC24 >/. C ~ L - 1 * 7 . „ _ - - A B O . ^ Swi « 0 / * "~^*NX . ' ; ! _ „ ' \ . Z ' o l ^ i . - Q P 0124 P-A • ~,v>P,>" V Multiply Freq. Scale by . 50. r ........ / ^r ; r Zero l e v e l : . 100 - 'V " 11612/21121 , ' 5 A 8 C Lm. Fig. 15. Record-playback response of a Nagra IV-S tape recorder (left channel) at 0, - 1 0 , - 2 0 , and - 3 0 dB (Nagra IV-S meter). (A) 15 ips. 5 ips. 75 ips. 33 n BrUei & KjoBr Potentiometer Range:—50 dB Rectifier: BMS__ Lower Lim.

F. Collecting Specific S o u n d s in the Field 1. The Parabola A parabola focuses onto a single point incoming sound waves that are parallel to its axis. Its effectiveness is determined by the diameter of the reflector in relation to the wavelength of the sound. Its gain and directivity increase propor­ tionately with decreasing wavelength. For wavelengths larger than the parabola's diameter, the response is predominantly that of the microphone itself. For a parabola to be minimally effective at 100 Hz, the diameter must be a little over 16 David C.

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