By Irwin E. Alber
Engineers have to collect “Back-of-the-Envelope” survival abilities to acquire tough quantitative solutions to real-world difficulties, quite while engaged on initiatives with huge, immense complexity and intensely constrained assets. within the case experiences taken care of during this booklet, we express step by step examples of the actual arguments and the ensuing calculations got utilizing the quick-fire process. We additionally show the estimation advancements that may be bought by using extra particular physics-based Back-of-the-Envelope engineering types. those diversified equipment are used to procure the recommendations to a few layout and function estimation difficulties coming up from of the main complicated real-world engineering initiatives: the distance travel and the Hubble area Telescope satellite tv for pc.
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Extra resources for Aerospace Engineering on the Back of an Envelope (Springer Praxis Books)
The sum of these velocity changes must equal Dvrequired , which is the losscorrected orbital velocity for the mission. Taking the same total required orbital velocity that we used in our single stage model calculations, we set the following condition Dv1 þ Dv2 ¼ Dvrequired % 9:0 km/s 22 Introduction [Ch. 1 Next, we decide on a rule for partitioning the two Dv components. Notice that the ﬁrst stage solid rocket motors operate for approximately 2 minutes and are then jettisoned, then the Orbiter’s liquid rocket motors operate for approximately 6 minutes.
1, is approximately 100,000 kg. We now deﬁne all of the relevant Shuttle system mass components and their interdependent relationships. In particular the initial takeoﬀ mass is given by mi ¼ mpropellant þ mstructure þ morbiter þ mcargo where mpropellant ¼ mp=solid þ mp=liquid and mstructure % mstructure=solid motors þ mstructure=external liquid fuel tank ð1:3Þ Sec. 4 Quick-Fire estimate of cargo mass delivered to orbit 19 We also deﬁne the payload mass, mp=l , to be the sum of the Orbiter mass and the cargo mass ð1:4Þ mpayload mp=l ¼ morbiter þ mcargo In some studies, the Orbiter mass is deﬁned as part of the overall structural mass.
Our thrust estimate is % 96% of the lowest tabulated thrust. 1. Our estimate of aircraft mass of 3:4 Â 10 5 kg is about 20% lower than the nominal aircraft mass in the literature; the published mass of the 747-400 is approximately 4 Â 10 5 kg at takeoﬀ. Our predicted takeoﬀ thrust is well within the factor of two uncertainty for a reasonably ‘‘good’’ Back-of-the-Envelope estimate. The estimated magnitudes of many of the individual parameters utilized in our calculation also fall within this factor of two level of uncertainty.