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By K. Feste

What coverage is healthier for the U.S. to minimize the specter of Islamic extremist terrorism? fresh American presidents have utilized substitute clash answer ways. Clinton practiced clash avoidance, conversing tricky yet hardly retaliating opposed to anti-American terrorist assaults. G. W. Bush followed a fighter process and the worldwide warfare on Terrorism and armed forces interventions in Afghanistan and Iraq replicate this method. Obama brought a 3rd substitute: challenge fixing and lengthening peaceable overtures whereas maintaining resistance. Will the tactic be successful? Feste analyzes presidential rhetoric on counterterrorism coverage during the lens of factor framing, enemy aggression, self -hardship, and victimization expressed in a number of speeches added through those leader executives to spotlight and evaluate their clash answer options.

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Extra info for America Responds to Terrorism: Conflict Resolution Strategies of Clinton, Bush, and Obama (The Evolving American Presidency)

Sample text

Reframing means redirecting the other side’s attention away from its preferred positions on an issue, that is, particular, single solutions beneficial only to that party, and toward the task of identifying interests, inventing creative options, and discussing fair standards for selecting an option (Ury, 1991). This may mean, for example, to reframe a personal attack as a “friendly nudge,” or to reframe a personal attack as an attack on “the problem,” or to reframe past wrongs into future remedies.

All four of these framing functions hold together in a particular logic. The two most important framing functions are problem definition (which often virtually predetermines the rest of the frame) and remedy, because it directly promotes support (or opposition to public policy), states Entman (2004). Words and images that make up the frame are noticeable, understandable, and emotionally charged. The prominence and repetition of the framing words and images help build public opinion support for the frames.

If he believed Iraq would use weapons of mass destruction against the United States or provide them to terrorists, then inaction could be portrayed as having the greatest variance in outcome. Observers, like actors, will sometimes differ in their assessment of risk and this makes prospect theory difficult to test. The intuitive idea that we hate to lose more than we love to win, and so will take more risk to avoid a loss than we will to secure an equivalent gain is the basis for prospect theory.

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