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Extra info for An embedded interactive monitoring system for PV-Diesel hybrid plants in rural areas

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A second and very important element for stand-alone applications, the ability to provide and to absorb reactive power should be mentioned. Typical loads requesting reactive power are electric motors. In some inverter designs handling of reactive power is limited depending on the load type. In this case, the acceptable power factor is defined. The maximum power of the inverter is given in Kilo-Volt-Amperes (kVA) instead of Kilo-Watts (kW). The energy of the reactive power, which is to be absorbed and afterwards re-injected to the load, is normally stored in capacitors of appropriate sizes.

This threshold is basically given in the data sheets by the manufacturer for different discharge currents. Preferably, the value of this threshold should depend on the discharge current. The relation between the discharge current and the voltage during discharge for the lead-acid battery is presented in Figure 2-16. 21 Chapter 2: PV-Diesel hybrid system technology Figure 2-16: Discharge characteristic curves [6] Figure 2-16 shows the discharge profile of the VARTA-OPzS battery type at several constant current rates.

C − QBat SOC = ⎜⎜ act ⎝ C act ⎞ ⎟⎟ ⎠ (2-10) where Cact is the actual capacity of the battery (Ah). This definition is used throughout this work. The ability to determine the battery state of charge in a system at any time is very important from the point of view of the system operation. Knowing the state of charge continuously makes the system energy management possible. In addition, for a stand-alone photovoltaic system, the required battery capacity can be more accurately determined which implies higher reliability of the energy supply and lower system cost [6].

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